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Breast Cancer


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Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is the most common cancer that affects women. It is the second leading cause of death in women due to cancer after lung cancer. General awareness of the symptoms and regular screening can help in reducing the risk. In rare cases, breast cancer can also affect men.
Due to increasing awareness and research findings, the diagnostic and treatment methods for breast cancer has advanced a lot. It has reduced the incidences of death related to the disease. It has increased the survival rates due to early detection, personalized approach, and better evaluation of the case.
Initially, breast cancer develops as-
•    A thick area of tissues in the breast
•    A lump in the breast
•    A lump in the armpit.
Other symptoms include:
•    Pain felt in the armpits or breast that remain constant with no relief during menses
•    Redness of the skin of the breast
•    A rash on or around one of the nipples
•    Discharge of blood from the nipples
•    Inversion of  the nipple
•    An alteration in the size or shape of the breast
•    Peeling, flaking, or scaling of the skin around the nipple or whole breast
However, most breast lumps are not cancerous. If you feel a lump in the breast, then breast examination by an expert physician may help to rule out the chances of breast cancer.
1. Age- the chances of developing breast cancer increase with an increase in age. Its cases are highly reported in old age by 70 years.
2. Genetics- According to current guidelines, women with a family history of breast, ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer and who have a history of breast cancer related to BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations are more likely to develop cancer.
3. A history of breast cancer or breast lumps- Women who have the medical history of previous breast cancer or non-cancerous breast lump are more likely to develop breast cancer than those who have no such history.
4. Dense breast tissue- Women having more dense breasts are more likely to contract breast cancer.
5. Estrogen exposure and breastfeeding- women who have extended exposure to estrogen are more at risk of breast cancer, such as menarche or menopause or breastfeeding.  
6. Bodyweight- obese women, usually after menopause, have a higher chance of developing breast cancer, probably due to increased estrogen levels and high sugar intake.
7. Alcohol consumption- A higher consumption of alcohol is at higher risk of breast cancer development than light drinkers.
8. Radiation exposure-Undergoing radiation treatment for different cancer may increase the risk of developing breast cancer.
9. Hormone treatments- According to the NCI, oral contraceptives may elevate the risk of breast cancer. According to the studies conducted by ACS, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), particularly estrogen-progesterone therapy (EPT), is associated with a raised risk of breast cancer.
Breast cancer is diagnosed by the following methods-
1.    Breast exam-The doctor will physically examine the breasts for lumps and other symptoms in different positions, such as above their head or by their sides.
2.    Imaging tests-Several tests are needed to detect breast cancer-
•    Mammogram- It is an X-ray test used to produce images to find out any lumps or abnormalities.
•    Ultrasound- It utilizes sound waves to differentiate between a solid mass and a fluid-filled cyst.
•    MRI: it is helpful to study the images of the breast to identify cancer or other abnormalities. It is often combined with ultrasound and mammograms as a screening tool for those who have a higher risk of breast cancer.
3.    Biopsy- In this test, a sample of tissue is extracted from the breast and sends it for laboratory analysis.
The main treatment options include:
1.    Radiation therapy- In this therapy, high-powered beams of energy, such as X-rays and protons, are utilized to destroy cancer cells.
2.    Surgery- the cancer cells are removed by Lumpectomy, Mastectomy, Sentinel node biopsy, and total mastectomy by a plastic surgeon
3.    Biological therapy, or targeted drug therapy- Targeted drug treatments are used to attack specific abnormalities within cancer cells.
4.    Hormone therapy- it is also termed as hormone-blocking therapy, used to treat breast cancers, sensitive to hormones. It is also used before or after surgery or other cancer treatments to reduce the chance of relapse of disease.
5.    Chemotherapy-It is sometimes given before surgery to treat larger breast tumors to shrink a tumor to a size. It is also used in cases of cancer in which has already spread to other parts of the body.
6.    Immunotherapy - Immunotherapy uses your immune system to fight cancer. For triple-negative breast cancer, it is combined with chemotherapy to treat advanced cancer that's spread to other parts of the body.

Jaw Replacement Surgery


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Jaw  Replacement Surgery Jaw surgery is an oral or dental surgery done for correction of the irregularities and realignment of the jaw bones and teeth. It is also called as orthognathic (or-thog-NATH-ik) surgery. It helps to improve the functions of jawbones and teeth, along with the enhancement of facial appearance. Jaw surgery is a corrective surgery selected when jaw problems cannot be resolved with orthodontics alone. It is recommended when growth ceases, usually at the ages 14 to 16 years in females and ages 17 to 21 years in males. In many cases, bone and cartilage of jaw may deteriorate over time with age or be severely damaged by any trauma or injury. If non-surgical treatment fails or damage is too high, jaw surgery may be recommended. The surgeon may suggest arthroscopy, a minimally invasive procedure in which he may use scopes to inspect and repair joints.  In cases featuring severely damaged jawbones, the surgeon will opt for open surgery, also named as arthroplasty, a major surgery done to repair or replace the jaw. It is called Jaw replacement Surgery.  Candidates for Jaw Surgery Those who face the following problems are potential candidates for Jaw Surgery- Problems related to biting and chewing easier Difficulty in swallowing or speech Having excessive wear and breakdown of the teeth eat fit or jaw closure issues, such as when the molars touch but the front teeth don't touch (open bite) Facial asymmetries, such as small chins, underbites, overbites and crossbites The inability of the lips to fully close comfortably Pain triggered by temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder and other jaw problems Facial injury or birth defects Obstructive sleep apnea Procedure Jaw surgery is conducted by oral and maxillofacial surgeons. It is performed on the upper jaw, lower jaw, chin, or any combination of these. The patient is given general anesthesia before surgery. He may have to stay two to four days after the surgery. Surgery is performed inside the mouth that does not leave any facial scar on the chin, jaw, or around the mouth. However, in some cases, small incisions may be needed outside the mouth. The surgeon may make cuts in the jawbones and moves them into the correct places. After this, tiny screws, bone plates, wires, and rubber bands are used to fix the bones in the new position. These screws are small that get dissolved in the bones to become an integrated part of the bone structure over time. In some cases, extra bone, taken from the bones of rib, hip, or leg, may be added to the jaw. It is often secured with plates and screws. In other cases, the bone may be reshaped to provide a better fit. After surgery, specific problems like pain and swelling, issues related to eating that can be treated with nutritional supplements, and a brief time of adjustment to a new facial appearance.   Advantages Jaw surgery corrects the alignment of the jaws and teeth that can benefit the patient with: The balanced appearance of the lower face Improved function of the teeth Health benefits from breathing, improved sleep, chewing and swallowing Improvement in speech impairments Secondary benefits of jaw surgery may involve: Improvement in  appearance Improvement in self-esteem Recovery After surgery, the patient can reassume working in one to three weeks. Total recovery may take nine to 12 months. Risks Jaw surgery is generally performed by an experienced oral and maxillofacial surgeon, in association with an orthodontist. Risks of surgery may include: Infection Nerve injury  Blood loss Fracture in jaw Relapse of the jaw to the original position Problems with bite fit Pain in jaw joint Requirement for further surgery Need for root canal therapy on selected teeth Loss of a portion of the jaw

Kidney Transplant


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Kidney Transplant A kidney transplant is a surgery in which a healthy kidney from one person is replaced into the body of a person whose kidney does not function properly or does not function at all. It is required to treat kidney failure. People who have kidney failure usually undergo a treatment called dialysis. This treatment helps to mechanically filter waste that accumulates in the bloodstream when the kidneys stop functioning. Some people who have kidney failure may qualify for a kidney transplant. In this procedure, one or both the kidneys are replaced with donor kidneys from a live or deceased person. Candidates A person who has the following conditions is the right candidate for a kidney transplant- •    end-stage renal disease •    kidneys had stopped functioning entirely •    better health condition to tolerate the effects of the surgery •    there are good chances to have a chance of success Poor candidates •    old age •    cancer, or a recent history of cancer •    severe infection, such as tuberculosis, bone infections, or hepatitis •    severe cardiovascular disease •    hepatic disease •    Dementia or poorly controlled mental illness •    smoking, alcoholism, and use of illicit drugs Procedure First of all, kidney donors are selected for having a perfect match for the patient who wants to undergo kidney transplantation. Kidney donors are usually of two types, living or deceased. Living donors are the alive person, usually a family member or person who has two healthy kidneys and is willing to donate one. Deceased donors, also known as cadaver donors, are people who have died recently due to an accident rather than a disease. Either the donor or their family wants to donate their organs and tissues. Kidney transplants are performed with general anesthesia. The heart rate, blood pressure, and blood oxygen level of the patient is monitored throughout the procedure. During the surgery, the surgeon cuts the lower part of one side of the abdomen and replaces the diseased kidney with the new kidney. Unless the diseased organs are leading to complications such as high blood pressure,  pain, or infection, kidney stones, they are left in their original position. The blood vessels of the transplanted kidney are joined to blood vessels in the lower abdomen. The ureters of the transplanted kidney are connected to the bladder of the patients. Advantages Kidney transplant has the following benefits in patients •    Better quality of life •    Lower risk of death •    Fewer dietary restrictions •    Lower treatment cost •    No dialysis Recovery After kidney transplantation, transplanted kidneys may take a few weeks to work properly. Till then, the patient is temporarily kept on dialysis. If family members donate kidneys, then the donated organs would start working faster than deceased donors. Most people can resume work and other normal activities in six to eight weeks after transplant. They are advised to avoid lifting objects weighing more than 10 pounds or exercise other than walking so that the wound can heal. It usually takes about six weeks after surgery. Side effects or risks •    An allergic reaction to general anesthesia •    Bleeding •    Blood clots •    Leakage from the ureter •    A blockage in the ureter •    An infection •    Rejection of the donated kidney by the patient's immune system •    Failure of the donated kidney •    A heart attack •    A stroke  

Facial Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery


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Facial Trauma Facial trauma is a physical trauma that happened to the face. One can get physical facial trauma through road traffic accidents, industrial accidents, and personal injuries from sports, etc. Some of the most common examples of facial trauma involve injuries to soft tissue like burns, and bruises, laceration, fractures of the jaw, facial bones, & nasal fractures and damage to the eye. Facial trauma may cause damage or injury to the following regions: 1.    Soft tissue – Skin, subcutaneous tissue or any underlying muscle 2.    Bones- Maxilla :        •    Upper jaw        •    Orbit – Eye socket        •    Zygoma – Cheekbone        •    Mandible – Lower jaw        •    Nasoethmoid orbital skeleton – Central face, joint of bones starting from the nose, orbits, maxilla, and cranium 3.    Avulsed teeth-it is called ‘knocked-out teeth,' which needs to be given an immediate preference to have successful tooth reimplantation. 4.    Special region- This involves injuries to the nerves in the salivary glands, eyes, or face. Facial Reconstructive Surgery Facial reconstructive surgery is a surgery required to correct the deformities and misalignments of the structures of the face. It is performed by oral and maxillofacial surgeons. It often becomes necessary for the restoration of the function and appearance of the face and self-confidence of the patient.   Candidates for Reconstructive Surgery Those who have the following abnormalities are potential candidates for surgery- •    Birth defects and deformities that arise from conditions such as cleft lip or palate,  Apert syndrome, craniosynostosis, •    Injuries to the head, face or jaw     •    Deformities caused by surgery done to treat tumors •    Tumors Procedure The operation is performed when the patient is deep asleep or under general anesthesia. It may take 4 to 12 hours or more. In this procedure, some parts of the facial bones are cut and moved to attain proper alignment. The pieces of bone grafts taken from the pelvis, ribs, or skull may be used to fill in the gaps. The tissues are moved, and blood vessels and nerves are carefully reconnected using microscopic surgery techniques. Small screws, implants, and plates material may be used to fix the bones in place. Implants may also be used. The jaws may be joined with wire to keep the new bone in positions. Flaps may be taken from the hand, chest wall, buttocks, or thigh buttocks to use to cover the surgical area. In some cases, the surgery is followed by swelling of the face, mouth, or neck that may end in a few weeks. Recovery It takes around three months for the patients to recover entirely from the craniofacial reconstruction. During this period, patients may experience swelling while the face heals. Some patients need to have regular follow-up procedures during the next 1 to 4 years. The patients are advised to avoid contact sports for 2 to 6 months after surgery. Risk The potential complications of facial reconstructive surgery are- •    Problems breathing •    Reactions to medicines •    Bleeding, blood clots, infection •    Nerve injury (cranial nerve dysfunction) or brain damage •    Need for follow-up surgery, especially in growing children •    Partial or total loss of bone grafts •    Permanent scarring

Knee Replacement Surgery


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Knee Replacement Surgery

Knee replacement surgery or knee arthroplasty (ARTH-row-plas-tee) is a surgical procedure performed to relieve pain and restore function in severely diseased knee joints. A number of knee replacement prostheses and surgical techniques are available for orthopedic surgeons in the medical world. The selection of perfect surgical procedure depends on the age, weight, size, and shape of the affected knee, activity level, and overall health of the patient.
An orthopedic surgeon assesses the range of motion, stability, and strength of the affected knees. He asks the patient to perform X-rays to know the extent of the damage. After which right surgical technique is selected. The procedure usually involves cutting or incision of the damaged bone and cartilage from the thighbone, shinbone joining at the knee and kneecap, which is then replaced with an artificial joint (prosthesis).  It is prepared from metal alloys, polymers, and high-grade plastics.  
There are three types of surgery-
1.    Partial knee replacement surgery- In this procedure, only the part of the damaged or arthritic knee is removed or replaced. It has an advantage that it requires a smaller cut resulting in less bone, less blood loss, and less pain during recovery than other procedures.
2.    Bilateral knee replacement surgery- In this procedure, the replacement of both of the knees is done at the same time. An advantage of bilateral knee replacement is that this procedure and recovery process happens once if both the knees are affected. However, recovery takes a longer time, and much more assistance is required during healing.
3.    Total knee replacement surgery-During this procedure, a surgeon removes some bone and cartilage from the areas of the thighbone (femur) and shinbone, at the knee joint and replaces the knee area of the femur with a metal implant and the knee area of the shinbone with a plastic implant.
Candidates for Knee Replacement surgery
The potential candidates of knee replacement surgery are who have following ailments –
1.    Severe pain caused by osteoarthritis.
2.    Problems related to climbing stairs, walking and getting in and out of chairs.
3.    Knee pain even at rest
4.    Failure of other medical treatments
Knee replacement surgery is done under general anesthesia or spinal anesthesia to make the patient unconscious. The patient is given an intravenous antibiotic before, during, and after the procedure to prevent infection after surgery.
During this procedure, the affected knee is bent, and a cut of 6-10 inches long is made on it. The damaged joint surfaces are cut and removed. Then, the parts of the artificial joint are attached to the joint surfaces. The surgical area is then bent and rotated to ensure the proper function of the joint. It is then closed, and the whole procedure may take two hours to complete.
After the surgery, the patient may have to stay in the hospital for a few days. Painkillers and anti-inflammatory medicines are prescribed to control pain and inflammation. The patient is advised to exercise under the supervision of a physiotherapist and gradually intensified to achieve the full range of motion of the knees.
Most patients recover in three to six weeks after this surgery. The patient can resume his most daily activities, such as shopping and light housekeeping in this period. They can continue driving around three weeks.  Most knee replacements remain functional up to 15 years or more.
Knee replacement relieves dramatic pain for more than 90 percent of patients with the best outcomes. It boasts one's activity level as it allows the affected person to participate in everyday physical activities such as walking, swimming, bicycling, and other activities that he used to do before the knee ailments.
Knee replacement surgery has the following risks:
•    Infection
•    Blood clots in the leg vein or lungs
•    Stroke
•    Nerve damage
•    Heart attack

Hair Transplant


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Hair transplant is a surgical procedure in which surgeons move hair to an area where is no hair or thin hair. Usually, surgeon moves hair from the back or side of the head where dense and good quality of hair are present to bald area, i.e. front or top area of the head.

Candidates for hair transplant

Hair transplantation can help to improve one’s appearance and self confidence. The person who can receive hair transplant are-

  • Males who have male pattern blindness
  • females with thin hair
  • one who have loss of hair due to burn or scalp injury

Hair transplant cannot benefit people in case-

  • people do not have donor sites for the movement of the hair
  • women whose hair loss is widespread throughout the scalp
  • people who have undergone hair loss due to medication like chemotherapy
  • people who have tendency to develop keloids or scars after injury or  surgery

Causes of hair loss

There are many reasons for the loss of hair in humans. Permanent baldness is the major cause of hair loss in men due to genetic factors. The other reasons for hair loss are below:

  • Family history (heredity)
  • Stress
  • Imbalance Diet
  • IIllness
  •  Hormonal imbalance  and medicines.
  • Radiation therapy to the head. 
  • Certain hairstyles and treatments
  • Others


There are basically two types of hair transplants procedures performed by surgeons. It depends on the need of coverage on the scalp. Its types include-

  • Slit graft- It contain 4-10 hair in each  graft
  • Micrografts- it contain 1-2 hairs in each graft


Surgeon starts the procedure of hair transplant by cleaning the scalp. He uses a small needle to give local anesthesia in order to numb the bald area of the head. He can use two main techniques namely FUT (Follicular Unit Transplantation) and FUE (Follicular Unit Extraction).

Follicular unit transplantation or strip method-

  • A thin strip of scalp is extracted from the back of the scalp with the help of scalpel. It usually contains 1 to 4 hairs.
  • Tiny cuts are made on the site of surgery
  • This strip is placed on the tiny cuts.
  • It is then closed with stitches.

Follicular Unit Extraction (FUE)

  • The back of the scalp is shaved and surgeon removes the hair follicles one by one.
  • It heals leaving small dots.
  • Then, the area to be grafted with hair is shaved and holes are made on this area.
  • The hair grafts are placed with the help of scalpel or needle.

Both the process may take 4-8 hours. The stitches are removed in 10 days following the surgery. The patient may require three to four sessions to have the desired dense of hair on the head. Gaps are maintained between the sessions for proper healing of the transplants. Pain medicines, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory medicines are prescribed to avoid pain, infection and inflammation after the surgery.


Most people return in few days after the surgery. Normally, grated hairs fall down in two to three weeks after the surgery making way for the new hair to grow. New hair may appear in 8-12 months after the surgery. Most people experience 60 % of hair growth in6 to 9 months. In some cases, hair growth medicines such as minoxidil (Rogaine) or Finasteride are given to have better results.

Risks and Side effects/complications

The side effects for hair transplantation are not intense and go in few weeks. These include bleeding, infection, swelling in the scalp, bruising around the eyes, crust on the scalp, numbness or lack of sensation, itching or numbness on the transplanted areas.


the new hair continue to grow on the transplanted areas of the scalp. Its density depends on the laxity or looseness of the scalp, hair quality, hair curl and density of the follicles.

Drug and Alcohol Prevention


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Across the country, more people are dying from drug overdoses than car accidents. We read about their deaths daily in the news—lives young and old snuffed out. Young people are at high risk because of their unpredictable behavior. And when we look at the broader pattern of misuse of alcohol and drugs, we learn that a majority of the adults who are addicted to drugs and alcohol started down that path as a youth.
To break this cycle and help more young people stay healthy, Community Instigator is joining with consumer advocates nationwide in a three-year project to make alcohol and drug prevention and counseling more widely available to youth. It just takes a short conversation with young people to identify whether they're using drugs and alcohol, but, unfortunately, this is not a common practice in doctor's offices, schools, or in other places that young people gather.
The project, focused on youth ages fifteen to twenty-two, uses consumer-led advocacy to promote a cost-effective, public health approach called Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT). SBIRT is a set of tools that helps identify alcohol and drug problems and guides intervention if a problem exists. It also supports youth who are not misusing substances by providing pep talks to encourage them to keep refraining.
The project is supported by a $2.5 million grant from the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, which will be matched by $1.7 million from other sources. The Hilton Foundation sees consumer advocacy as a critical part of its $10-million-a-year Youth Substance Use Prevention and Early Intervention initiative, which aims to ensure that at least 30 percent of U.S. youth have access to SBIRT, to increase the number of pediatricians and other youth workers trained to conduct SBIRT by 30,000, and to strengthen the evidence and encourage learning to improve delivery of prevention and early intervention services through SBIRT. The Hilton Foundation is also partnering with national medical associations, medical educators, youth organizations, and research institutes to increase knowledge about SBIRT.

Know Patent Ductus Arteriosus Risk Factor for Child


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Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a persistent opening between the two major blood vessels leading from the heart. The opening is called Ductus Arteriosus, is a normal part of a baby's circulatory system before birth that usually closes shortly after birth. when the baby is still in the mother’s womb, they didn’t require lungs to supply oxygen because they receive oxygen from their mother. Hence there is no need for the heart to pump blood to the lungs. The Ductus Arteriosus is present in all babies while still in the womb, and it allows blood to bypass the lungs.

In most babies who have normal heart, PDA will shrink and close by its own. the ductus arteriosus usually closes within the first hours of life. sometimes, the Ductus Arteriosus does not close on its own. This is known as a Patent Ductus Arteriosus. Mostly this condition is seen in premature babies,sometimes it has also appeared in full-term babies. Small PDA that doesn't close early will seal up on their own by the time the child is a year old. If PDA stays open for longer, then the extra blood will flow to the lungs.

Signs & Symptoms of Patent Ductus Arteriosus

the PDA symptoms vary with the size of the defect and whether the baby is full term or premature. A small PDA might cause no signs or symptoms and left undetected for some time. A large PDA shows signs of heart failure as soon after birth.

Dr. Suresh Rao from Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital says” the basic symptoms of heart problems are: a child may require ventilation, a child may not gain weight, they get record Respiratory infection”.

A large PDA found during childhood might cause:

  • Poor eating
  • Sweating with crying or eating
  • Persistent fast breathing or breathlessness
  • Easy tiring
  • Rapid heart rate

Symptoms of PDA

  • Abounding (strong and forceful) pulse
  • Fast breathing
  • Not feeding well
  • Shortness of breath
  • Sweating while feeding
  • Tiring very easily
  • Poor growth

Description:  causes of patent ductus arteriosous


Causes of Patent Ductus Arteriosus

It is a congenital heart defect, means the problem early in the heart's development. The cause of PDA is unknown, but genetics might play a role. PDA is common among premature babies. the connection often takes longer to close. If the connection remains open, it's referred to as a patent ductus arteriosus.

Risk Factor of Patent Ductus Arteriosus

Family history and other genetic conditions:

If you have a family history of heart defect or another genetic condition such as Down syndrome, it increases the risk of having PDA.

1. Premature birth: PDA occurs in premature babies who are born too early than in babies who are born full term

2. Rubella infection during pregnancy: If the mother gets contract Rubella virus during pregnancy. your baby's risk of heart defects increases.

3. Being born at a high altitude: Babies born above 10,000 feet have a greater risk of a PDA than babies born at lower altitudes.

4. Being female: PDA is twice common in girls.


Small PDA might not cause complications. Larger, untreated defects could cause serious problems:

1. High blood pressure in the lungs: Too much blood circulating through the heart's main arteries through a PDA can lead to pulmonary hypertension.

2. Heart Failure: PDA eventually cause the heart to enlarge and weaken, leading to heart failure

3. Heart infection: People who have PDA are at a higher risk of an inflammation of the heart's inner lining than are people who have healthy hearts.

Treatment for Patent Ductus Arteriosus

The treatment for PDA will be determined by your child's doctor based on:

  • Childs age, overall health
  • Childs medical history
  • The extent of the disease
  • the child's tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
  • Expectations for the course of the disease

Description:  PAD

A small Patent Ductus Arteriosus can close by its own as a child grows. A child showing symptoms will require a medical attendance and possible even a surgical repair. A cardiologist will monitor closely to see whether the PDA is closing on its own. If a PDA does not close on its own, it should be repaired to prevent lung problems. A closure of defect is usually recommended as a high risk of cardiac complications and early death related to PDA.

1. Wait and Watch:

Many times, in a premature baby, PDA close on its own. Your cardiologist will monitor a baby's heart closely to make sure the open blood vessel is closing properly. For children who have small PDA that aren't causing other health problems, only monitoring might be needed.

2. Medications:

In premature infant anti inflammations drugs such as indomethacin or ibuprofen (Advil, Infant's Motrin) might be used to close the PDA. Indomethacin is related to aspirin and ibuprofen and works by stimulating the muscles inside the PDA to constrict, thereby closing the connection.

3. Surgical closure:

If the medication is not effective and a child's condition is causing complications, surgery might be recommended. Open heart surgery is a standard surgical procedure. In this procedure, the surgeon opens the child's ribs to reach its heart and repair the open duct using stitches or clips. After a surgery child remains in the hospital for several days. It will take a few weeks to a child to fully recover from the surgery.

4. Catheter Procedures:

Nowadays, more than 95 percent of PDAs can now be closed by catheter-based techniques. Premature babies are too small for Catheter procedure. However, if a baby doesn't have PDA related health issues then a doctor may recommend waiting until the baby is older to repair catheter procedure to correct the PDA.

In this procedure, a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel in the groin and threaded up to the heart. Through the catheter, a plug is inserted to close the ductus arteriosus.


There is no sure way to prevent having a baby with a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), however, it is important to do everything possible to have a healthy pregnancy.

1. Seek early prenatal care: Reduce stress, quit smoking, stop taking birth control pills.

2. Eat healthy Diet: Eat a proper diet, as recommend by your physician, include a vitamin supplement that contains folic acid.

3. Exercise regularly: Consult your doctor and work on your work out plan that’s right for you.

4. Avoid risk: These include harmful substances such as alcohol, cigarettes and illegal drugs.

5. Keep diabetes under control: work with your doctor to manage the condition before and during pregnancy.

6. Avoid infections: Update your vaccinations before becoming pregnant. certain infections can be harmful to a developing baby.


Medical Tourism Market Estimated To Tower Swiftly to Reach Almost USD 28.0 Billion by 2024


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North America region is the largest consumer among the geographies followed by Europe while APAC to grow at the highest CAGR For More Details Get Few Sample Pages of this Report@ Table Of Content: Chapter 1, Definition, Specifications and Classification of Medical Tourism Market, Applications of Medical Tourism Market Segment by Regions; Chapter 2, Overall Market Analysis, Capacity Analysis (Company Segment), Sales Analysis (Company Segment), Sales Price Analysis (Company Segment); Chapter 3, Regional Market Analysis that includes United States, China, Europe, Japan, Korea & Taiwan, Medical Tourism Market Analysis (by Type); Chapter 4, The Medical Tourism Market Analysis (by Application) Major Manufacturers Analysis of Medical Tourism Market; Chapter 5 and 6, Regional Marketing Type Analysis, International Trade Type Analysis, Supply Chain Analysis; Chapter 7 and 8, Chapter 9, The Consumers Analysis of Global Medical Tourism Market; Scope of the Report: • To analyze global Medical Tourism Market status, future forecast, growth opportunity, key market and key players. • To present the Medical Tourism Market development in United States, Europe and China. • To strategically profile the key players and comprehensively analyze their development plan and strategies. • To define, describe and forecast the market by product type, market and key regions. Inquire more or share questions if any before the purchase on this report @ Promising Regions & Countries Mentioned In The Medical Tourism Market Report: North America ( United States) Europe ( Germany, France, UK) Asia-Pacific ( China, Japan, India) Latin America ( Brazil) The Middle East & Africa The report gathers the essential information including the new strategies for growth of the industry and the potential players of the global Medical Tourism Market. It enlists the topmost industry player dominating the global Medical Tourism Market along with their contribution to the global market. The report also demonstrates the data in the form of graphs, tables, and figures along with the contacts details and sales of key market players in the global Medical Tourism Market. Major Points Covered in Table of Contents: 1 Study Coverage 2 Executive Summary 3 Medical Tourism Market Size by Manufacturers 4 Medical Tourism Market Production by Regions 5 Medical Tourism Market Consumption by Regions 6 Medical Tourism Market Size by Type 7 Medical Tourism Market Size by Application 8 Manufacturers Profiles Reasons for Buying Medical Tourism Market This report provides pin-point analysis for changing competitive dynamics It provides a forward looking perspective on different factors driving or restraining market growth It provides a six-year forecast assessed on the basis of how the market is predicted to grow It helps in understanding the key product segments and their future It provides pin point analysis of changing competition dynamics and keeps you ahead of competitors It helps in making informed business decisions by having complete insights of market and by making in-depth analysis of market segments Thanks for reading this article; you can also get individual chapter wise section or region wise report version like North America, Europe or Asia.