Facial plastic surgery is a surgical operation done to reshape structures in the head and neck like the nose, ears, chin, cheekbones, and neckline. It is performed to reconstruct the face after a disease, injury, or birth defect or to change the signs of aging, remove contour irregularities or deformities, or improve the features of the facial appearance, to make it look more young, natural & more in proportion with one another.
It is also performed to improve specific congenital facial abnormalities such as a birthmark, cleft lip, or other birth defects. Many conditions, such as sun damage, the effects of aging, or previous facial trauma, are also resolved through its procedures performed by a skilled surgeon.
ENT (ear, nose, and throat) doctors/otolaryngologists are trained surgeons to diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions that require plastic surgery for the whole face, nose, lips, ears, and neck.
Facial Plastic Surgery Types:
Facial plastic surgery is included in otolaryngology (the study of Ear, Nose & throat) that is divided into two types:
1. Reconstructive plastic surgery- It is performed for patients who have conditions present from birth, like birthmarks on the face, protruding ears, cleft lip and palate, and a crooked smile affecting their normal function. It is also selected for conditions arising from accidents, burns, trauma, or previous surgery. Besides, some reconstructive procedures are done to treat existing diseases like skin cancer.
2. Cosmetic facial plastic surgery- It is surgery performed to improve the visual appearance of the facial structures and features. It involves procedures like facelifts, eye lifts, rhinoplasty, chin and cheek implants, liposuction, and methods to remove facial wrinkles.
Surgical Facial Plastic Treatments-
1. Rhinoplasty/Septoplasty/ nose surgery—in this procedure, internal and external structures of the nose i.e., cartilage and bone, are reconstructed and reshaped to improve the appearance and function of the nose. It is done for both functional (correction of a deviated septum) and cosmetic purposes.
2. Blepharoplasty or eyelid Surgery—it involves surgery of the upper or lower eyelids to correct the conditions like drooping eyelids, impaired vision, and enhance the appearance of the eyes.
3. Browlift — It is the surgery to improve wrinkles and deep lines in the forehead and droopy or furrowed eyebrows.
4. Rhytidectomy —Surgery of the skin on the face and neck is performed to tighten the skin and remove excess wrinkles.
5. Liposuction—It is done to remove excess fat under the chin or in the neck
6. Facial Implants—it is used to make specific structures of the face (cheek, lips, chin) more attractive, prominent, and well defined.
7. Otoplasty or ear surgery- It is performed to reshape the cartilage of the protruding ears.
Recovery and Expectations:
Most of the facial surgery will not require an extended stay in the hospital. It depends on the extent of the operation and procedures performed on an outpatient basis. Some procedures may need a hospital stay overnight, or it may extend to a day or two. Before discharge, the surgeon will instruct the patient any special care required for easy recovery at home. Most patients may resume work in one to two weeks after their surgery, probably when swelling and bruising subside, and there is an improvement in their appearance.
Risks or Side Effects:
Facial surgery has risks of nausea, numbness, infection, blood clots, bleeding, and adverse reactions to the anesthesia.