Bariatric surgery is a surgical operation that contributes to losing weight by making alterations in the digestive system. Some types of bariatric surgeries work to lose weight by reducing the size of the stomach, which makes the patient eat and drink at every meal and feel full sooner. Bariatric Surgery includes Gastric bypass and other weight-loss surgeries that effectively make changes in your digestive system to help you lose extra calories.
Obesity can be understood by our body mass index. If one’s body mass index (BMI) exceeds 30 or more, then he is considered obese. BMI is a measure of one's weight-related to his height.
• Class 1obesity indicates a BMI of 30 to 35,
• Class 2 obesity shows a BMI of 35 to 40,
• Class 3 obesity to a BMI of 40 or more.
Classes 2 and 3, are considered as severe obesity, and it becomes hard to treat with diet and exercise alone.
Candidates for Bariatric Surgery
1. If one is overweight (BMI is 40 or more) and when diet and exercise haven't worked.
2. If one has serious health problems, such as type 2 diabetes or sleep apnea, related to obesity. (BMI is above 35 or more)
3. If one has BMI is 30 or more, serious health problem related to gastric band is accompanied by obesity
The obese teenager needs this surgery if he has-
• Severe obesity-related health problems like type 2 diabetes or severe sleep apnea with BMI equal to or above 35
• Less serious health problems like high blood pressure or high cholesterol with BMI equal to or above 40
Potentially life-threatening weight-related health problems includes:
• Heart disease and stroke
• High blood pressure or hypertension
• Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)
• Sleep apnea
• Type 2 diabetes
1. Roux-en-Y (roo-en-wy) gastric bypass- It is the most common method of gastric bypass. It cannot be reversible. It reduces the amount of food one can eat in one meal and the absorption of nutrients. In this procedure, the surgeon cuts the upper portion of your stomach, sealing it off from the rest of your stomach, reducing its size. Then, the small intestine is cut and sewn directly onto the pouch to bypass the food directly into its middle part.
2. Sleeve gastrectomy- In this procedure, about 80% of the stomach is removed. A long, tube-like pouch is left to hold less food. It also leads to reduced secretion of the appetite-regulating hormone ghrelin, reducing one’s desire to eat.
3. Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch- It has two-parts which the first step involves performing a procedure similar to sleeve gastrectomy, and another one connects the end portion of the intestine to the duodenum near the stomach (duodenal switch and biliopancreatic diversion), bypassing the majority of the pipe.
• It reduces one's appetite and urges to eat much.
• It causes significant long term weight-loss.
• It reduces the absorption of the nutrients.
Hospital stay depends on the type of bariatric surgery performed. Post-surgery, the patient is not allowed to eat for one or two days, and a specific diet plan is given to them to follow for a few weeks. He is advised to switch to a healthy lifestyle to fetch good outcomes of the surgery.
Short term Risks associated with the surgical procedure can include:
• Excessive bleeding
• Adverse reactions to anesthesia
• Blood clots
• Breathing problems
• Leakage in your gastrointestinal system
• Death (rare)
Longer-term risks and complications of weight-loss surgery may vary and depends on the type of surgery. It includes:
• Bowel obstruction
• Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
• Dumping syndrome, which leads to diarrhea, flushing, lightheadedness, nausea or vomiting
• Acid reflux
• The need for a second, or revision, surgery or procedure
• Death (rare)